Abstraction - A principal concept to computer science related to the modeling, theory and design of programming language to give meaningful names to code functionality. Abstracting something means to give definition to things, so that the name captures the core of what a function or a whole program does.
Active filter - Electronic filters are a type of signal processing filter in the form of electrical circuits. That is, using components and interconnections that, in analysis, can be considered to exist at a single point. These components can be in discrete packages or part of an integrated circuit.
Aliasing - A high frequency signal appearing low frequency after sampling at a low sampling is called aliasing.
Amplifier - An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current). It is a two-port electronic circuit that uses electric power from a power supply to increase the amplitude of a signal applied to its input terminals, producing a proportionally greater amplitude signal at its output.
Artificial neural networks (ANN) - also known as connectionist systems are computing systems that are similar to biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. Such systems "learn" to perform tasks by considering examples, generally without programmed with task-specific rules. For example, in image recognition, they might learn to identify images that contain cats by analysing example images that have been manually labeled as "cat" or "no cat" and using the results to identify cats in other images. They do this without any prior knowledge of cats, for example, that they have fur, tails, whiskers and cat-like faces. Instead, they automatically generate identifying characteristics from the examples that they process.
An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nodes called artificial neurons, which loosely model the neurons in a biological brain. Each connection, like the synapses in a biological brain, can transmit a signal to other neurons. An artificial neuron that receives a signal then processes it and can signal neurons connected to it.
In ANN implementations, the "signal" at a connection is a real number, and the output of each neuron is computed by some non-linear function of the sum of its inputs. The connections are called edges. Neurons and edges typically have a weight that adjusts as learning proceeds. The weight increases or decreases the strength of the signal at a connection. Neurons may have a threshold such that a signal is sent only if the aggregate signal crosses that threshold. Typically, neurons are aggregated into layers. Different layers may perform different transformations on their inputs. Signals travel from the first layer (the input layer), to the last layer (the output layer), possibly after traversing the layers multiple times.
Arrays - A type of defined programming data type that deals with an index of values. Examples lies as an array named and defined as A can contain multiple values B, C and D.
Base Class Libraries (BCL) – The Base Class Libraries are sets of common functions accessible by any .NET language, including PowerShell. The BCL is organized into namespaces based on functionality. For example, the Webclient class is in the System.Net namespace. The BCL includes functions for working with files, networking, database interaction, graphics, and much more.
Backus–Naur form [Backus normal form (BNF)] - is a notation technique for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages.
A BNF specification is a set of derivation rules, written as " ::= __expression__" where is a nonterminal, and the __expression__ consists of one or more sequences of symbols; more sequences are separated by the vertical bar "|", indicating a choice, the whole being a possible substitution for the symbol on the left. Symbols that never appear on a left side are terminals. On the other hand, symbols that appear on a left side are non-terminals and are always enclosed between the pair <>. The "::=" means that the symbol on the left must be replaced with the expression on the right.
In PowerShell the BNF specification is used to define rules of creating and defining PowerShell commands through using a Verb, dash (-) Noun grammar standardization. Not all commands use BNF but the specialization was implemented for future proofing, third party and vendor module development.
Bionics - A portmanteau from biology and electronics. The designing of engineering systems and technology based on studies of natural biological systems.
Buffer - Is one that provides electrical impedance transformation from one circuit to another, with the aim of preventing the signal source from being affected by whatever currents that the load may be produced with. The signal is 'buffered from' load currents.
Camel Case - When naming elements (the variables/methods/function/attributes) in programming code traditionally there are two (2) ways that many programmers use to define the naming convention. The terminology is named CamelCase. The older term (pre 2000's) is named PascalCase.
Upper CamelCase has each first letter of a combined word capitalised e.g. Camel Case = CamelCase
Lower CamelCase has only the first letter of the second or more combined words capitalised e.g. Camel Case = camelCase
Casting - The procedure of changing a data type of a defined variable/object to another data type.
Class – A class is an abstract definition of some functionality. The class is the definition that the CLR uses when objects are created. Classes are also referred to as Types. Classes can also have static methods, which are functions that can be used without having to create an instance of the class.
CLI - abbreviation; Command Line Interface. To denote the visual text based software interface used for interaction with a host software.
Common Language Runtime (CLR) – The Common Language Runtime is the execution environment for .NET applications. The CLR provides memory management, exception handling, thread management, and security infrastructure. The CLR is the engine that runs .NET applications.
Common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) - Tells us what happens if we have two large but equal (common) signals coming to V+ and V-. Obviously we will expect 0, which makes CMRR to be infinite. In reality it is 80-100dB, which means some fraction of common mode signal comes through to the output (especially important if it is 50 Hz mains!)
Compiled Language - The programming language when run in its host shell is processed by the underlying operating systems hardware and run consuming the hardwares processing power.
Cookies - Cookies are data, stored in text files, that are saved on the computer/device that access a web page with cookies enabled. When a web server sends a web page to a browser the connection is not persistent and shuts down causing the server to forget all information about the users browsing sessions.
When a user visits a web page, their name can be stored in a cookie file saved on the computer. The next time the user visits the page, the web server checks the cookie saved on the users device and can remember/derive the users name. Cookies are saved in name-value pairs like: username = John Doe
This separation can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple web pages to share formatting by specifying the relevant CSS in a separate .css file, and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural content.
Cybernetics (noun) - is a transdisciplinary (scientific & philosophical) approach exploring governance, control, communication and convergence of biological & machine systems.
Cybernetics is relevant to the study of systems, such as mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social systems. Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analysed incorporates a closed signalling loop which is, where an action by a system generates change within it's environment then the change is reflected in that system (feedback) which triggers a system change, originally referred to as a "circular causal" relationship.
E.g. the study of Human Government, Artificial Intelligence, Bionic prosthetic limbs, Brain-Computer Interfaces or Cyborg.
"A Cyborg portmanteau of cybernetic organism e.g. human, with cybernetic parts known as Cyberware, such as robotic camera eyes in replacement for their pre-existing eyes and bionic prosthetic limbs that are controlled with a brain-computer interface governed by the hosts brain."
Cyberneticist - A multi-discipline expert across Medical/Engineering/Technology Cybernetics fields of theory and application.
e.g., An Biomedical Engineer with understandings and applications of administering, practicing, producing, fabricating or augmenting any medical, engineering or technological cybernetic products and services is known as a Cyberneticist.
The discipline requires knowledge and applications of Medical/Engineering/Technology Cybernetics, Control Theory, Medicine including neuroscience, medical imagining and physiology and Electrical Engineering such as to create cyberware is known as a Cyberneticist.
Cybernetics Technology: See Cyberware
Cyberware - The technology of converged scientific fields of medical, engineering and technological cybernetics that relates with biological and machine interaction. e.g. Brain-Computer Interfaces.
Cyborg - A Cyborg is a cybernetic organism e.g. human, with cybernetic parts known as cyberware, such as robotic camera eyes in replacement for their pre-existing eyes and bionic prosthetic limbs that are controlled with a brain-computer interface governed by the hosts brain."
Data Type - The defined value type of an object or defined variable. The Type of a object/defined variable has its own interaction throughout the programming Framework unique to its type.
Diode - Is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction; it has low resistance in one direction, and high resistance in the other.
Django - a free and open-source web framework, written in Python, which follows the model-view-template (MVT) architectural pattern. It is maintained by the Django Software Foundation (DSF), an independent organization established as a 501(c)(3) non-profit.
Django's primary goal is to ease the creation of complex, database-driven websites. Django emphasizes reusability and "pluggability" of components, less code, low coupling, rapid development, and the principle of don't repeat yourself. Python is used throughout, even for settings files and data models. Django also provides an optional administrative create, read, update and delete interface that is generated dynamically through introspection and configured via admin models.
DOM - abbreviation, Document Object Model. The DOM is a W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) standard that defines a standard for accessing documents. When a web page is loaded on a web browser, the web browser creates a DOM of the page. The HTML DOM model is constructed as a tree of Objects. The DOM objects such as individual tags are made viewable and accessible by the browser/console.
Duty Cycle (Power Cycle) - Is the fraction of one period in which a signal or system is active. Duty cycle is commonly expressed as a percentage or a ratio. A period is the time it takes for a signal to complete an on-and-off cycle.
Electrocardiography (ECG) - Is the process of producing an electrocardiogram, a recording – a graph of voltage versus time – of the electrical activity of the heart using electrodes placed on the skin.
Electroencephalography (EEG) - Is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain. It is typically noninvasive, with the electrodes placed along the scalp, although invasive electrodes are sometimes used, as in electrocorticography.
Electromyography (EMG) - Is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph to produce a record called an electromyogram.
Electronic Filter - An active filter is a type of analogue circuit implementing an electronic filter using active components, typically an amplifier. Amplifiers included in a filter design can be used to improve the cost, performance and predictability of a filter.
Electrooculography (EOG) - Is a technique for measuring the corneo-retinal standing potential that exists between the front and the back of the human eye. The resulting signal is called the electrooculogram. Primary applications are in ophthalmological diagnosis and in recording eye movements.
Encapsulation - The principal of nesting data within data to either hide the data components or to bundle the data’s methods and functionality. The encapsulation of data is fundamental in standardisation and molarity within Object Oriented programming.
Environment - "The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates" When a PowerShell programming languages command is used in the PowerShell ISE shell, the command is run real-time against the target operating system. e.g. If you wanted to know how many files are in your desktop, the command you run on your shell session
Event – Events are notices that an object can expose, allowing others to run code in response to a change of state of some sort.
Exception – Exceptions are the error handling mechanism in the CLR. Exceptions are strongly typed, so you can handle expected errors in your code differently depending on the problem.
Freeware - Software that is available for use at no monetary cost. In other words, while freeware may be used without payment it is most often proprietary software, and usually modification, re-distribution or reverse-engineering without the author's permission is prohibited. every Freeware publisher defines their own rules for their Freeware.
GBP (gain–bandwidth product) - The gain–bandwidth product for an amplifier is the product of the amplifier's bandwidth and the gain at which the bandwidth is measured.
Git - a version control system for tracking changes in computer files and coordinating work on those files among multiple people. It is primarily used for source code management in software development, but it can be used to keep track of changes in any set of files. As a distributed revision control system, it is aimed at speed, data integrity, and support for distributed, non-linear workflows.
GPL - abbreviation; General Public License See GNU License.
GNU - abbreviation; GNU's Not Unix!. an free operating system similar to UNIX in design but containing no UNIX code and being a free consumer software.
GNU License - abbreviation Similar (GNU GPL or GPL) an abbreviation of General Public License is an widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
In 2007, the third version of the license (GNU GPLv3) was released to address some perceived problems with the second version (GNU GPLv2) that were discovered during its long-time usage. To keep the license up to date, the GPL license includes an optional "any later version" clause, allowing users to choose between the original terms or the terms in new versions as updated by the FSF. Developers can omit it when licensing their software; for instance the Linux kernel is licensed under GPLv2 without the "any later version" clause.
GUI - acronym; Graphical User Interface. used to denote the visual components of a software interface used for interaction.
High-level programming language - a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
Host Application - The operating system device. In terms of Host Shell this references the target device that the shell interface is running on.
HTML5 - a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web. It is the fifth and current major version of the HTML standard. It was published in October 2014 by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia, while keeping it both easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices such as web browsers, parsers, etc. HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4, but also XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML.
Inheritance - In Object Orientated Programming Inheritance is the notion of nested classes within another class inheriting permissions and functionality of the nested parent class. Usage lies in a programming class defined as B is nested inside class A. Both Class A and B can share the same attributes/methods as defined within the model structure.
Input impedance - The stuff which resist the current flow between - and+, we do not want this otherwise the voltage divider forms (serial to source), essentially we are measuring the voltage across input impedance of the OpAmp, and if it is small, as shown on the diagram, we lose large portion of the total voltage supplied.
Instantiation − The creation of an instance of a class. Usage when objectifying a class to interact with to manipulate. An Example would be the Microsoft voice class of Cortana software that speaks to user to offer assistance can be objectified and captured into a variable to manipulate into creating own custom voices for programming.
Integrated - "With various parts or aspects linked or coordinated." That is to say the PowerShell programming language can be directly typed and run in this software and it will work
Interpreted language - A type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions. The interpreter executes the program directly, translating each statement into a sequence of one or more subroutines, and then into another language (often machine code).
The terms interpreted language and compiled language are not well defined because, in theory, any programming language can be either interpreted or compiled. In modern programming language implementation, it is increasingly popular for a platform to provide both options.
Logic gates - Logic gates are the basic building blocks of any digital system. It is an electronic circuit having one or more than one input and only one output. The relationship between the input and the output is based on a certain logic. Based on this, logic gates are named as AND gate, OR gate, NOT gate etc.
Machine Learning - Related to computational statistics and a subset of artificial intelligences, Machine learning (ML) is the scientific study of statistical models and algorithms used by computer systems to perform specific tasks without explicit instructions relying on patterns and inference instead. ML algorithms build a mathematical model based on sample data known as "training data" in order to make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed to perform the task.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - Is a type of scan that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body.
Matrix - A matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns. In computer science this refers to any two (2) dimensional array data type. An Tuple or Vector achieve the same programming definition.
Markup Language - A markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text. A language that annotates text so that the computer can manipulate that text.
The codes enclosed in angle-brackets are markup instructions (known as tags), while the text between these instructions is the actual text of the document. The codes h1, p, and em are examples of semantic markup, in that they describe the intended purpose or meaning of the text they include. Specifically, h1 means "this is a first-level heading", p means "this is a paragraph", and em means "this is an emphasized word or phrase". A program interpreting such structural markup may apply its own rules or styles for presenting the various pieces of text, using different typefaces, boldness, font size, indentation, colour, or other styles, as desired.
Method – Methods are actions that the object (or type in the case of static methods) can perform. Methods can have a return type and can require different sets of parameters, allowing you different ways to call them.
MySQL - An open-source relational database management system(RDBMS). Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter, and "SQL", the abbreviation for Structured Query Language. The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation For proprietary use, several paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality.
Namespace – A Namespace allows CLR functions to be organized and distinguished. Using a Namespace helps prevent naming conflicts without having to have extra long names. For example, the class System.Net.NetworkInformation.Ping is in the System.Net.NetworkInformation namespace.
.NET Framework – The .NET Framework is a software framework that contains the Common Language Runtime and Base Class Libraries that provide much of the functionality. There are several versions of the .NET Framework. PowerShell is compatible with versions 2.0, 3.0, and 3.5.
Nyquist Theorem - To avoid aliasing in reconstructing a sample rate the sampling rate should be double the maximum frequency. The higher the sampling rate the higher the accurate representation of the original signal.
Object – An object is the instance of a class. An object is a distinct creation in memory that follows the blueprint described in the class. For example, System.Net.WebClient is a class. To create an instance of that class in PowerShell, I would: $webclient = New-Object System.Net.WebClient. The result would be an object of the type System.Net.Webclient which is pointed to by the variable $webclient.
Object Oriented Programming - The fundamental framework of a programming language in treating things in programming as objects and data. This model encapsulates logic as data and defines actions as objects. The principal of OOP is to create uniformity by strict standards using different concepts of Abstraction, Inheritance, Polymorphism, and Encapsulation.
On-premise - Refers to any computing service such as installed software or hardware hosted on the premises of the person or organization rather than a off-site facility such as a server farm or cloud (Internet).
On-cloud - Commonly known as "Cloud Computing" refers to any computing service such as a website or software hosted on the Internet. Off-premise software is commonly called “software as a service” ("SaaS").
Operational Amplifier - An operational amplifier is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. In this configuration, an op-amp produces an output potential that is typically hundreds of thousands of times larger than the potential difference between its input terminals.
Output impedance - This stuff we want to be zero, otherwise our output current is limited by external components, besides, there is another voltage divider forms and we are losing another portion of our signal.
Parasitics - In electrical networks, a parasitic element is a circuit element that is possessed by an electrical component but which it is not desirable for it to have for its intended purpose. For instance, a resistor is designed to possess resistance, but will also possess unwanted parasitic capacitance.
Pascal Case - alternatively known; Pascal Casing See CamelCase.
PHP - abbreviation; PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language. It was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.
PHP code may be embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems, and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in the web server or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. The web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. PHP code may also be executed with a command-line interface (CLI) and can be used to implement standalone graphical applications.
Polymorphism - The provision of a single interface to entities of different types. In example a float (Decimal Numerical type) and int (Whole value numerical Integer type) are both numerical values that can be used in numerical procedures yet have different unique types.
PowerShell - A task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language. Initially a Windows component only, known as Windows PowerShell, it was made open-source and cross-platform on 18 August 2016 with the introduction of PowerShell Core. The former is built on .NET Framework while the latter on .NET Core. In PowerShell, administrative tasks are generally performed by cmdlets (pronounced command-lets), which are specialized .NET classes implementing a particular operation.
These work by accessing data in different data stores, like the file system or registry, which are made available to PowerShell via providers. Third-party developers can develop their own cmdlets and add them to PowerShell. Sets of cmdlets may be combined into scripts.
Powered orthotics - see Exoskeletons.
Property – A property is data that is associated with an object or class. Properties themselves are objects. In our example, the System.Net.Webclient object referred to by $webclient has a property Credentials, which is an object of the type System.Net.NetworkCredentials.
Python - An interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming. Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, Python has a design philosophy that emphasizes code readability, notably using significant whitespace. It provides constructs that enable clear programming on both small and large scales. Python features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative, functional and procedural, and has a large and comprehensive standard library.
Regex - abbreviation; Regular Expression. a sequence of characters that define a search pattern. The specific, standard textual syntax for representing patterns for matching text.
REST - acronym; Representational State Transfer. an framework that defines a set of constrains for usage in creating web services. Web services that conform to REST architecture are known as RESTful web services and provide the interoperability between computing devices on the Internet. REST API's refer to the intractable components of a software web service using the REST standard.
SAAS - A cloud computing terminology otherwise referred to as "on-demand software" is a software licensing and delivery model from which A software service is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted, either on-cloud (Internet) or on-premise (server).
Sampling rate - or sampling frequency defines the number of samples per second (or per other unit) taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete or digital signal
Schmitt Trigger - Schmitt trigger devices convert the incoming signal to on/off pulses. Typically used in signal conditioning applications to remove noise from signals used in digital circuits, particularly mechanical contact bounce in switches.
Scripting - "A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks" This means that the top pane (The white pane) that differentiates visually from the standard PowerShell session, has a text field area like Microsoft Word or notepad, that code can be typed into in however formatting is required before running the operating systems. The User interface software can be either a CLI (command line interface) text input or GUI (graphical user interface) a point and click WYSIWYG shell.
Silicon conformal coating - Is a clear and flexible coating that is ideal for protecting electronic circuits.
Sine wave - A S curve as a graph representing periodic oscillations of constant amplitude as given by a sine function.
Ship of Theseus - The Ship of Theseus is a hypothetical situation in which an object that has had all of its components replaced remains fundamentally the same object.
Transistor - Is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.
Type Accelerators -The shorthand alias name of common .NET Framework classes used for object data type definition.
Unicode - a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium, and as of June 2018 the most recent version, Unicode 11.0, contains a repertoire of 137,439 characters covering 146 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets and emoji. The character repertoire of the Unicode Standard is synchronized with ISO/IEC 10646, and both are code-for-code identical.
Unicode can be implemented by different character encodings. The Unicode standard defines UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32, and several other encodings are in use. The most commonly used encodings are UTF-8, UTF-16 and UCS-2, a precursor of UTF-16.
UTF-8 - a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes. The encoding is defined by the Unicode standard, and was originally designed by Ken Thompson and Rob Pike. The name is derived from Unicode (or Universal Coded Character Set) Transformation Format – 8-bit. t was designed for backward compatibility with ASCII.
UTF-8 has been the dominant character encoding for the World Wide Web since 2009, as it is most popular in every country, and as of July 2018 accounts for 91.8% of all web pages
Value Type - See Data Type.
Voltage divider - A simple passive linear circuit which turns a large output voltage (Vout) into a smaller input voltage (Vin).
WYSIWYG – acronym; What you see is what you get. The visual component of an application that the user can interface with from what is was developed for.
XML - abbreviation; Extensible Mark-up Language. a mark-up that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The W3C's XML 1.0 Specification and several other related specifications—all of them free open standards—define XML